Biometric Sensing and Analysis
|Area Lead:||Larry Hornak|
|Other Members: ||Larry Hornak, Stephanie Schuckers|
resistance, vitality, liveness, sensor optimization, biosensors, ultraviolet uv devices
Biometric Identification systems currently draw on a range of solid state electronic as well as bulk and integrated optical sensing devices. Optimization of these devices for such parameters as increased resolution, sensitivity, and speed can increase biometric information content, decrease signal processing overhead, enhance classification robustness, and increase system performance and user acceptance. This research thrust brings together device expertise, modeling tool, and experimental characterization capabilities and couple it with bioengineering knowledge of the physiological interface to achieve optimization of biometric devices.
ID Sensor Modalities
ID modalities augmenting fingerprints and external physiological imaging with which to design multi-modal high-assurance systems include signals traditionally used for medical purposes such as ECG and pulse oximetry, and biochemical signatures. This research will establish a set of viable physiological signals and corresponding optical and electronic microsensors suitable for a range of ID assurance applications and for inclusion in multimodal biometric systems in combination with established modalities (fingerprint, face, voice, etc.). A specific area of exploration is the incorporation of modalities based on these techniques to address and effectively enable spoofing and vitality determination. This physical sensor work will couple strongly with research that described in the image/signal processing program area exploring multimodal biometric ID.
Integrated Optical Biosensors
Integrated biosensors based upon rapid, direct optical detection promise significant impact in ID technology applications in forensics, health care, and public health. This thrust leverages work planned or underway with a subset of potential center members exploring the realization of robust optical biochips designed to enable these sensors to be applied outside of controlled laboratory conditions. A key issue is local variability in chemical composition of complex biological matrices, such as tissue and blood, can alter the sample-light interactions - the transmission, absorption, scattering, and fluorescence properties of the sample under test. These properties are also affected by changes in the ambient of the sample - temperature, humidity, pH, etc. Studies will be undertaken to determine minimum sample size/volume required to accurately predict the presence of specific compounds such as DNA fragments and to precisely calculate the concentration of trace biochemicals such as hormones. In addition, these results will provide information that can be used to establish the need to incorporate additional sensors into noninvasive optical detectors and optical biochips for particular applications to assist in signal processing and noise reduction algorithms. Guided wave optical biochip designs will draw upon group expertise in optimized waveguide and diffractive optical structures. As optical biochips are developed, measurements will be carried out to determine the sensitivity of the various optical properties of the biochip itself, with an evaluation of the various designs performed to develop an understanding of the system tolerances. Thus, one can envision the biomedical optical sensors used routinely in doctors' offices and in home for rapid, accurate monitoring of critical analytes. DNA fragments could be analyzed at local police departments and by emergency medical personnel to quickly determine the presence of potential pathogenic organisms.
Active Sensors for Identification and Forensic Technology
The component focuses on innovative new sensor applications, sensing materials and devices. This work leverages work on novel approaches for developing both infrared and ultraviolet (uv) semiconductor source and sensor technology of the Optoelectronic Group at WVU. These efforts include development of in-house capabilities for growth and device fabrication while developing strong external ties with other groups working in this area, resulting in a high level of expertise for active sensor development. One area of emphasis, wide band gap semiconductor technology, is rapidly reaching a level of maturity which allows the fabrication of novel sensors and light emitters which will enable new applications in optoelectronics, information technology, and of importance to this effort, identification and forensic technology. For example, low-level, narrow-band uv illumination provided by wide band gap light emitting diodes can be used to reveal unique features for personal identification that are not observable under normal visible light. Coupling with high sensitivity, solar blind uv detector arrays, also based on wide band gap semiconductors, allow uv intensities to remain low while allowing operation in sunlight or bright room light. In addition, hybrid integration of active sources with optical biosensor (such as those descibed above) or microfluidic chips promises “system on a chip” solutions in biological sensing applications. One approach being pursued by the CITeR group relies on fluorescence analysis of biological molecules. This requires the development of various fluorophores that attach to specific molecules or DNA fragments and can be attached to a transparent substrate. Fluorophores can be taylored to have their own specific excitation and detection band. By using arrays of narrow wavelength emitters for excitation with matched detectors one can have a highly selective, active system for rapid identification of biological agents. Projects within this rich application domain will be defined with prospective member input during CITeR planning.